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#889481 CCIP Study material recommendations

Posted by faisal.saleem on 04 August 2010 - 07:19 AM

Because so many stuff already out there and it is difficult to chose the best one. I tried to summarize the best deals regarding CCIP, any suggestions/corrections are more than welcome.



Cbtnuggets cisco 642-642 CCVP QOS
INE CoD 3-Day Video Course on QoS
Cisco 360 QoS Video Course


1.CCVP QOS Quick Reference Sheets (Digital Short Cut)
2.Cisco QOS Exam Certification Guide, Second Edition
3.Cisco Press CCIP CCVP QoS Student Guide V2.2 Vol I and Vol II


Cisco QoS v 2.1 Lab Guide
Narbik The Foundation 2.0 - The Gap from CCNP to CCIE
Narbik Advanced CCIE Routing & Switching 2.0 Work Book
CCNP Optimizing Converged Networks (ONT 642-845) Lab Portfolio




Netmasterclass MPLS COD / Cisco 360 CCIE R&S MPLS Lessons
INE CoD 3-Day Video Course on MPLS (Keith Barker)


1.Cisco Press Configuring MPLS Student Guide V 2.2 Vol 1 & Vol 2
2.Cisco Press MPLS Fundamentals
3.MPLS and VPN Architectures, Vol. II
4.Cisco Press Configuring MPLS on Cisco IOS

Cisco MPLS v2.1 Lab Guide
Cisco MPLS v2.2 Lab Guide



1.Netmasterclass BGP COD / Cisco 360 CCIE R&S BGP Lessons
2.Internetwork Expert CCIE R&S COD V4 Day4 (BGP)
3.INE 3-Day BGP CoD Course (Keith Barker)


1.Cisco Press Configuring BGP Student Guide V 3.2 Vol 1 & Vol 2
2.Cisco Press BGP-4 Command and Configuration Handbook (CCIE Professional Development) - W. Parkhurst - Cisco – 2001
3.Cisco Press Internet Routing Architectures, Second Edition, Sam Halabi
4.Cisco Press TCP/IP Routing Volume 2 Jeff Doyle


Cisco BGP v 3.1 Lab Guide
Narbik The Foundation 2.0 - The Gap from CCNP to CCIE
Narbik Advanced CCIE Routing & Switching 2.0 Work Book
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#911909 CCNA CheatSheets

Posted by asoft on 14 August 2011 - 06:31 PM

Has anybody used cheat sheet here:

Attached Files

  • 4

#876341 Block Web surfing with IPsec in winXP

Posted by torik_ad on 09 March 2010 - 07:31 PM

Block Internet surfing
To configure a single computer follow these steps:
Configuring IP Filter Lists and Filter actions
1. Open an MMC window (Start > Run > MMC).
2. Add the IP Security and Policy Management Snap-In.
Attached File  1.JPG   17.84KB   176 downloads
Attached File  2.JPG   32.22KB   144 downloads

3. In the Select which computer this policy will manage window select the local computer (or any other policy depending upon your needs). Click Close then click Ok.
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4. Right-click IP Security Policies in the left pane of the MMC console. Select Manage IP Filter Lists and Filter Actions.
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5. In the Manage IP Filter Lists and Filter actions click Add.
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6. In the IP Filter List window type a descriptive name (such as HTTP, HTTPS) and click Add to add the new filters.
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7. In the Welcome window click Next.
8. In the description box type a description if you want and click Next.
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9. In the IP Traffic Source window leave My IP Address selected and click Next.
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10. In the IP Traffic Destination window leave Any IP Address selected and click Next.
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11. In the IP Protocol Type scroll to TCP and press Next.
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12. In the IP Protocol Port type 80 (for HTTP) in the To This Post box, and click Next.
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13. In the IP Filter List window notice how a new IP Filter has been added. Now, if you want, add HTTPS (Any IP to Any IP, Protocol TCP, Destination Port 443) in the same manner.
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14. Now that you have both filters set up, click Ok.
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Note: A quick reminder - You can also Block Web Browsing but Allow Intranet Traffic with IPSec.
15. Back in the Manage IP Filter Lists and Filter actions review your filters and if all are set, click on the Manage Filter Actions tab. Now we need to add a filter action that will block our designated traffic, so click Add.
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16. In the Welcome screen click Next.
17. In the Filter Action Name type Block and click Next.
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18. In the Filter Action General Options click Block then click on Next.
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19. Back in the Manage IP Filter Lists and Filter actions review your filters and if all are set, click on the Close button. You can add Filters and Filter Actions at any time.
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Next step is to configure the IPSec Policy and to assign it.
Configuring the IPSec Policy
1. In the same MMC console right-click IP Security Policies on Local Computer and select Create IP Security Policy.
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2. In the Welcome screen click Next
3. In the IP Security Policy Name enter a descriptive name, such as "Block HTTP, HTTPS". Click Next
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4. In the Request for Secure Communication window click to clear the Active the Default Response Rule check-box. Click Next

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5. In the Completing IP Security Policy Wizard window, click Finish.
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6. We now need to add the various IP Filters and Filter Actions to the new IPSec Policy. In the new IPSec Policy window click Add to begin adding the IP Filters and Filter Actions.
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7. In the Welcome window click Next.
8. In the Tunnel Endpoint make sure the default setting is selected and click Next.
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9. In the Network Type windows select All Network Connections and click Next.

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10. In the IP Filter List window select one of the previously configured IP Filters, for example "HTTP, HTTPS" (configured in step #6 at the beginning of this article). If, for some reason, you did not previously configure the right IP Filter, then you can press Add and begin adding it now. When done, click Next.
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11. In the Filter Action window select one of the previously configured Filter Actions, for example "Block" (configured in step #15 at the beginning of this article). Again, if you did not previously configure the right Filter Action, you can now press Add and begin adding it now. When done, click Next.
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12. Notice how the IP Filter has been added.
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Again, you can add any combination of IP Filters and Filter Actions you like.
Notice that you cannot change their order like in other full-featured firewalls. Even so, this configuration works perfectly as you will soon discover.
The next phase is to assign the IPSec Policy.
Assigning the IPSec Policy
1. In the same MMC console, right-click the new IPSec Policy and select Assign.
Attached File  27.JPG   17.67KB   90 downloads
Done, you can now test the configuration by trying to surf to restricted and unrestricted websites.

Attached Files

  • Attached File  11.JPG   30.85KB   83 downloads

  • 4

#872618 Vote for the post UP

Posted by whoiam55 on 25 January 2010 - 10:19 PM

No to both questions, I mean I have neither used this feature successfully (I tried it once when you upgrade CMS) nor it is my first time I tried this.
  • 4

#452797 CCNA Diary(how To Start Study?)

Posted by faisal.saleem on 03 April 2007 - 05:48 AM

Warning and Disclaimer#1:-
This post is only and only for newbie’s who are fresh in the field of networking (cisco) + for those ppl who are lil bit puzzle yet to start their CCNA journey , So already if you has been passed CCNA or you know much about braindumping or You are a Cisco guru / CCIE candidate then please don’t waste your time to read this useless thread.. I only and only tried to share my own experience with beginners and that’s all. If you feel that below I used some rude/hard words for braindumpers then I really apologize for this. , Infact already many ppl have been shared their CCNA experiences on this forum, below are 2 very good examples from them = =>
so I didn’t do anything new but just shared some old tips/tweaks and let me also clear that I didn’t try to become hero or no # 1 ,no way …I am a very very simple guy having no any extra qualities or high education/experience and once again I apologies if there is anything negative/wrong you feel in my post :) , please do correct me via PM….

Why I wrote this post?
The reality is that 3 years ago(in the end of 2005) when I took admission(for CCNA preparation) in a low level institute then after 2 to 3 weeks I asked bundles of time to my teacher that please I understood all the concepts from 1st and 2nd chapter in CCNA book but kindly explain me sap/snap because this is away from my head but he didn’t/couldn’t , then after wasting many months I realize that the teacher itself isn’t CCNA or CCNP certified and he even don’t know about the difference between Autonomous system concept of OSPF & BGP etc so I leaved that institute and take admission in another but got same results, none of my friend/relative and any other network engineer guided me that what should I do?? Even I met with a CCIE lab fail guy but he didn’t put me on the right way so after wasting lot of time/money/energy then i got the right way from my own struggles and frankly speaking I passed my CCNA via sadikhov :) so when I passed then I started to explain the questions which most CCNA candidates raise but then I feel that most of the CCNA candidates are passing by using only dumps, actually when any new member come here and open the pinned post =>”I passed ” if you don’t trust on me then you can check the old history (I mean before the mid of 2007) ,so I thought that it is important to put all these beginners on the right way rather then answering their dumping questions, so that’s why I wrote this thread only and only for beginners..

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = == = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = == = == = =
Dear All,

I saw many of times here that people request here for dumps and confuse that how to start CCNA study?What is the best video training? etc.The main mission of sadikhov dat com isnt producing more and more braindumpers which already is happening here.Braindumper born in CCNA(all associate levels i mean CCDA etc) forums and then they create prob in CCNP(All professional levels i mean CCNP&CCSP etc) forums.So i decided to post a brief note on that.

How to prepare CCNA?

There are 2 possibilities

1. U already joined or looking for an institute.
2. U are self studying.

1.Regular CCNA study through institute:-

If you can afford and u find any well reputed and well equipped (with all necessary cisco devices) institute in your area then you should consider ur self lucky and take the admission ASAP.It is highly recommended way of study i suppose because you can work on real routers and switches and learn live through good teachers.

Note:-I already wasted my few months and money in 2 low level institutes so please while deciding institute ask the current/X students of that institute.

My own qout = = > ”Read before the teacher teach.”
Always try to study the topic which the teacher don't teach you yet i mean next lecture.By this way you can ask more questions to teacher at real time beause u already knew the basics of that topic + this isn't new for you and when teacher will teach you, your all doubts will be clear and i found it v v helpful for long life/better understand.

2.CCNA through self study:-

i)If you have a network background then u can start with CISCO press books but i recommend for fresh net workers to use sybex press because it is easy as compared to CISCO for beginners.
Note:- CCNA Curriculum 4 modules is highly recommended for making strong CISCO basics.If you belongs from span then you are lucky bcz a Spanish version is also available on sadikhov.

You should also study through video trainings bcz

a)These are made for whole world not for any specific institute/students.
b)You can take same lecture as many times as you want and at any suitable time when u have some free time for study.
c)Almost in all video trainings u can view live labs on live routers so it would also strong ur Lab knowledge.
d)Almost all are free on sadikhov so u need not worry to buy these.

Here is the list of recommended & all major video trainings provider companies.

1.[Train'signal] ICND1 & 2 <==== Recommended
2.Cisco press (CCNA video mentor)<===== Recommended
3.Cbtnuggets (640-802)<==== Recommended

You can try only one or two types but i don't recommend to use all of the above 7 mentioned.I personally like [Train'signal] and it is upon you that what you find better for you.There are 3 options to start study with these stuff.

a)books===>then videotraings.
b)Videotraining===>then books.
c)books + video trainings at same time.

Mr personal experience says that option b is better bcz as you go through 1 or 2 times with video training then you read book and you will feel that this book is very easy LOL.Anyway its upon you that what u like.

Real world tip :-
My way of study is that i also convert them in audio mp3 form(by using Allok AVI-MPEG-WMV-RM-to-MP3-Converter) and listen while on bed, on driving or any relax time.But only for revision so these topics are easily sit in my mind forever.You can try it i hop it will be very helpfull.

2ndly many CCIE stuff provider companies are making audio boot camp for example Ipexprt dat com ,videoed dat com etc so this little habit also will help to you in future when you will enter in CCIE game.
Check this = => www.sadikhov.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=121471

How I can perform Labs in self study?

1stly if you have an institute which can permit you for practice Labs only (in some $) or you have any relation with CEO/teacher of that institute and he will give you access for only few hours per week then try it first bcz it is very cheap/helpful for you.I also used this way.

2ndly use the dynamips router simulator.It will give you 100% results as real router give you.
Go in cisco share and search with the "dynamips" keyword. You will find everything which you want.Also you will lots of cisco IOS in there.

3rdly CCNA Video mentor will be very helpful for you in preparation of Labs.

Fourthly there are also some other router simulators like boson,routersim etc you can practise on them for switching but be sure that they dont give 100% results.

Fifthly the companion CDRooms with sybex and cisco press books are available in my collection give me someday to search and upload.

Sixthly You can practice with too many commands on already preconfigured labs by using CCNA Flash Cards(already shared in cisco share section)

Note:-CCNP,CCSP and even CCIE flash cards also has been released.

What are dumps/braindumpers and should i use these?

Dumps(pass4sure, testinside and testking etc) are cheats and the person who only relay on these to pass exam is called braindumper.

This is the most imp turning point of your IT career when you easily have access of dumps/cheats but you dont know that what should i do with these dumps?Now listen if you misguide at that time then you will become a braindumper and there is no medicine on any drugstore for it,once you become habit of braindumping then it may be possible that you cannot change it through your whole IT career (However u want to change it).At last i can only say that GOD bless You.Please dnt waste your time and our time go away.

1st of all i am clarifying that sadikhov dat com isnt a free latest dump provider site.If you come here specially for dumps then u can leave it would be better for you and us.Read these posts from top to bottom and ur mind/eye should be open why i am saying as


Well if you are facing any problem regarding study i e study material/problems while studying etc then u r welcome here.You are not alone we are all here to help you so my bro dntwory.

2ndly CCNA is a base of CISCO certifications if your base is composed of dump then your walls(CCNP) must be need for dump and at last when you reach near top(CCIE LAB) then be remember that there is no dum for CCIE LAB.

3rdly you should think on that point that why all most all people are passing in CCNA,CCNP,CCIE (written) etc but when they reach to LAB then only few can pass it?

Note:-I am not saying that all failed people in LAB are braindumpers ,their are many other reasons beside that.I appropriates the work/spirit of all persons who atleast took it for 1 time.

see this==>hxxp://www.sadikhov.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=77177&hl=took

Did Wambari CCIE # 17522 used any pass4sure or testinside to crack LAB? If he can do then why you cannot do? So do study/hard work as much as u can and ask us for any help/confusion.

When and how i should use dumps:-

Please during your study period dont think about any dump.Leave all matters which are happening on sadikhov regarding dumps.At time of studying through books+video trainings+all Labs if you feel any confusion you ask us.but please i am again n again saying that if you read a CCNA book 1 time and then you open pass4sure and ask us that hey prob in Q# ** i cannot understand that why this is hapend?what is the correct answer etc? Please don't do that, don't waste ur time and our time also.Ask pass4sure or testinside team who made it unfortunately. If you are thinking on this point that you asked us all questions here which you couldn't solve by yourself and now you understand all questions of dumps and you are ready to hit the exam then it is 100% sure that you are totally wrong.

I know that it is very hard for some people who arrange the fee (150$) and they cannot afford to fail . 2ndly i also agree that when you 100% prepare/confident for exam then you can use it, some people even pass without preparing any exam engine. Ok here is the way of use it

a)Before you hit the exam Approx 1 week earlier you can 1st try testking because it have also explanations for every question but be aware that it has many plenty of bugs.

b)You can use some useful transcenders or boson practice materiel but before seeing whole quesitons+answers open your practice exam engine and try a virtual exam and see that how much u scored?This is the real score of your study/mind level without using any dump.So you again start study and see that in which areas you are weak and how much you need more study.Then again do a virtual exam and at last you will get 1000/1000.So now its the time that you can hit the exam.

Note:-While performing your final step i mean during study of dumps/questions if you find any clarification you can ask us but we all will be more happy when you ask us for any topic which you cannot understand yet from books or video trainings etc instead of your dump(pass4sure , testinside etc)questions.

*please correct me if i am wrong from any point of view and if you have better suggestions then share your mind and forgive me for my bad English,Thanks in advance to like my post.

Updated on 20 may 2008

Lots of new queries arrived so i thought to add some more things.......

I am undergraduate or i m(already gradute) now thinking to do masters so should I do CCNA ?]
If you are undergraduate and currently doing your regular degree then give the proper time to your regular studies instead of CCNA because most companies don’t hire non graduates. You can do certification at any time, any month, any year These are just a value added service on your CV.So you better know what is feasible for you because everybody has its own scenario.
Chec these = = >
Post in this section I e ”Career Builders ” for such type of quires related to job/education.

I am doing job in LAN environment what should i do to prepare CCNA and how I can make my future secure

Well no worries most of network engineers start their career from LAN and it’s a good thing though because if your basics are strong, you know the basic LAN trouble shooting then you will be more confident, in LAN you will be familiar with Subnets/IPs , Proxy server, mail servers , a gateway router etc. But don’t need to be waste your time in LAN more then 6 to 8 months its enough in my opinion. After that pass CCNA ASAP and look for a job in your local ISP, Cisco Gold/Silver partners and side by side start to study CCXP.
Almost every country has some popular jobs sites so be sure you know these and you check on daily basis.
You can find your regional Cisco partners here = => www.cisco.com then click on ”partner central” then click on ”partner locator” then select your country and hit on ”Go”

What is the difference between CCNA(640-802) and ICND1 and ICND2? Which exam should I do?

Current cisco code for CCNA is 640-802 (but it will change in future), the CCNA 640-802 is the complete CCNA paper(combination of ICND1 & 2) which have currently total cost of 300 US$ but always check ”vue.com” for latest updated fee and if you feel that it is hard to pass for you or whatever the reason, then you can give in a separate fashion I e ICND1 and then ICND2 and when you will pass both exams then you will be awarded as CCNA certificate.

How often the Cisco updates their exam outlines?

Day by day new technologies are coming so whenever cisco feel that exam should be updated then they just subtract few chapters and add some new stuff and change the code so don’t b worry that you are preparing current curriculum and might be cisco suddenly change the exam. Regarding this matter Cisco have a policy that 6 month earlier (before the date of expiry date of an exam) they mentioned the new course outline so always check their official site for up-to-date info regarding this issue.

What are simlets, SIM etc and what is the exam scoring for each question and what are passing marks?

A Simlet is a single question containing few multiple choice questions. In which you have given access of 1 device or and by using specific command you have to answer the task.Sim means simulation, it is the single main lab in the exam, in which you have to perform a specific task assigned to you. Please note that in simlet and simulations only specific commands are allowed directly related to your task, so don’t think that these are real Cisco routers and switches and you can try all the possible commands on it which may help in your given task.
You can check at www.testinside.[websitebanned]/ for latest simulation solutions.

Some questions in the exam have 0 marks and some have double marks. Be careful while doing simulation and simlets because these are the most important part of the CCNA exam, so if you failed in both and do all other questions correct then there is no surety that you can pass the exam btw the passing score is approx 850 out of 1000.

When and how I will receive my certificate?

When you will be passed your exam then you will be awarded a score sheet on which your cisco ID is also mentioned .Be keep in mind that this is your only identity on the world of cisco, in future when if you want to give a ccnp exam then you have to mentioned this while registration otherwise you will be in trouble. Anyhow when you passed CCNA after a day or 2days you will receive a mail for verification of your home address or where you want to receive your certificate via currier services. Cisco will send you a hard copy on that address and if you do not want hard copy then they can send you a printable soft copy. All is depend on you.
check this = => www.sadikhov.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=82508

Note that Cisco take approx 6 to 8 weeks to send your certificate so dont be worried and be patience.

What is GNS3?

GNS3 is a nice gui interface of dynamips.You only need an IOS of a router and by using GNS3 you can make routers in your pc.These will give you 100% result as real router give and you can perform almost all labs on it. Here are some few helpful links regarding , I will add some more later when I will find.


For vlans = = > www.sadikhov.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=88008

Note:- If you have still problem with dynaimps/GNS3 then the best thing isto firstly consult this separate section for emulators/simulators = => www.sadikhov.com/forum/index.php?showforum=81
And also you can visit their official forum = = > hacki.at/7200emu/index.php
Here you can find lots of preconfigured topologies and helpful stuff like that.

How to search/download CCNA/Cisco stuff from sadikhov/internet?
If you can afford the money for buying cbts and other stuff like that then please do it because we should respect the Authors/Vendors , if all the world will try to download stuff free from the net then who will buy it??? And how Authors/Vendors will earn money from their products and will be happy to produce more and more quality stuff?? It is a valid point, I already has been enough spoken (on this issue) in these threads…


Well my friends please don’t need to be confuse and don’t try to start a new debate(on share section)here on this point = => in the above I am saying that buy the stuff but in the below why I will show you that how u can download stuff from net??? I admit the share section sometimes really represent this whole site as a dump site(means a site only for download stuff) but in parallel you can find here many many good technical sections and quality discussions/debates, which I didn’t see yet on the other forums/sites. So every individual has its own way of thought and own choices, I only put many ways of thinking in front of your eyes, and you have to chose which you feel best for you , either buy or download from share section.. everything is upto you….

Be aware that these sections (of sadikhov) are only for technical discussions, no post here allowed regarding sharing/requesting of study stuff, like which is the correct version of dump? Where are the download links of this dump/material? Hey everybody I upload this stuff and here is the download link etc.
Please before posting your first post on sadikhov (or even at any other site) be sure you read all the FAQs and rulz otherwise you will be warn/banned

1.Go in ”Cisco share” section at ”Study Guides Requests and Shares”
= =>www.sadikhov.com/forum/index.php?showforum=83
Now check the pinned topic and if you cannot find your desired book/video then use the search button if still not find then post in this specific share section.

2.Easiest way is to search via my signatures i mean put any string like ”Cbtnuggets CC NA 640-802” in the site = = > www.shareminer.com

3. Download via torrent sites (like isohunt,mininova,learnbits,bitme,bitspyder,demonoid etc) by using a torrent client(like utorrent )or download by using peer 2 peer software’s (like emule, ares etc).
For more info check this = >www.sadikhov.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=64444
Already Dr kernel done a great job on this issue.

4.If you still cannot find then check these posts


How often the exam questions change?

There is no specific time but every month or 2 month cisco add some new questions in exam and so when the lots of new questions arrive then the dump provider companies released their new version of dump which is 100% accurate with respect to real exam.
But what you will do when tomorrow is your exam and today they change almost all the questions……! This has been happened many times in the past, you can check some old posts here if you do not trust on me.Also by using dump still people failed check these threads

failed in CCNP by using dumps

failed in CCNA by using dumps

Its very easy to read just a book and download dump from share section and then give an exam with in few weeks but its much difficult to answer and understand these real questions without doing real study…
You can easily judge how much % of braindumping you hold? Just try to solve these without checking correct answers...........

Also check these nice knowledge base threads by 1 of my good friend here I e Nightshade.
Router summriaztion = => www.sadikhov.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=71646
Eigrp Tables = = > www.sadikhov.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=80700
CIDR and other terms = = > www.sadikhov.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=80502

[/b] Feedback [/b]

Folks …if I left anything which you feel should be there then feel free to share :) . And please if you wana say just Thank then do PM me because it will helpful to keep this thread clean and yes if you are facing any trouble/confusion in your CCNA studies then feel free to write reply in this thread, indeed this is open and will remain open for specially fresh CCNA candidates, we will try our best to guide you :) .

  • 4

#906576 Why certify?

Posted by MarkinManchester on 22 April 2011 - 09:54 PM

Cert gets you the interview, experience gets you the job

  • 3

#903130 Who has a Certification and cannot get a job?

Posted by Lethe on 12 February 2011 - 06:15 PM

Well first advice would be to let good dead post rest in peace, this is a 2 years old post. If you need advice feel free to open a new post without grave digging old ones.

Being MCSE or CCNP or whatever cert you want to put in here means little if they are not backed up by knowledge and experience, this is a general rule. a few years ago MCSE or not MCSE I was taking up any job that could yield some good working experience.

If the word "Engineer" is in your certification does not mean you are able to perform at Engineer level simple as that.

Closing this old topic, if you need advice feel free to open a new one.

  • 3

#901851 ssl layer

Posted by MarkinManchester on 25 January 2011 - 04:37 AM


SSL is not a single layer protocol. In fact it comprises two
protocols: the record protocol that sits on top of TCP L4 that
encapsulates other protocols; and a handshake protocol thats
stateful and sits at the session L5.

Honest thats the way it works! I am sure that somewhere in Mr. Lammles book he covers this subject :)

  • 3

#890502 FIB Table

Posted by andr2ea_g on 18 August 2010 - 11:08 PM

My bad, I must rephrase :) I was try to say too much in a few words and the result created a confusion.

1. What I meant by "as edge MPLS or core MPLS router assignation can be variable" is that in a MPLS network the administrator decides whether the router has the role of a PE (edge router) or a P (core router). Updating FIB and LFIB in each MPLS router with the same next hop label is part of MPLS functionality, even if the ingress edge router used only FIB and not LFIB when imposing the label. You are right, both tables (FIB and LFIB) have to have the same label info.

2. I said: "Also it can happen that after a link failure or something else in the MPLS core, the LDP neighbor relationship between 2 routers drops and the router looses the label for a certain destination.In this case when a labeled packet is received, the router sees there is no label for that destination, pops the label and forwards the packet as an IP packet." .
LFIB is used in this case, as the received packet is labeled. But the outgoing label or the mapped next hop label is missing, so the action is pop (removing the label) and the packet is forwarded as IP packet. The LDP neighbor receives the IP packet and takes the forwarding decision based on FIB. If FIB contains a label for the destination subnet than it labels the packet and now the packet is forwarded again as a labeled packet.

So the link failure implies: LDP and IGP neighbor relationships are lost. In this case, all the entries in FIB and than in LFIB and LIB regarding the next hop label are removed. IGP must convergence first and establish the new next hop. Once it is found, the label associated with it is taken from LIB (where it was stored from the beginning) and populate the FIB and LFIB tables. So there will be a label for that destination in LFIB and the packet is label switched.
In case the link connectivity is recovered, IGP determines it must re-convergence and the old next hop is back in FIB. Now, it might happen that the LDP convergence is not so fast and because in LIB table the label info associated with this re-convergenced next hop was removed at link failure, no next hop label is available. Thus, the pop action is associated with that destination. Until LDP convergence and thus label distribution, the packet is forwarded by means of IP.

3. MPLS is technology that has been situated between L2 and L3 OSI layers. It can carry IPv4, IPv6 packets, Ethernet or other L2 technology frames.
LSRs discover LDP neighbors by means of LDP protocol which is a control plane protocol. Also by means of LDP, the labels are distributed between LDP neighbors and stores in the appropriated tables. The same next hop label is stored in FIB, LIB and LFIB. The packet switching, whether IP or label, is a data plane process and uses FIB and LFIB tables.
The FIB is used to make decisions for received IP packets. If there is a label associate with IP packet destination and next hop, the packet is labeled (label added), if not, it is sent as an IP packet and not dropped.
If there is no label in FIB and LFIB for a specific destination through a specific next hop, the packet is forwarded as IP packet and not dropped.

That is a benefit of MPLS. Even though the frame mode functionality is not working (label switching) the IP packets are not dropped, but are forwarded through traditional routing protocols. This is true only for the basic functionality of MPLS. For applications as VPN MPLS and TE, the end to end LSP/RSVP path must be up.

I hope it helps!

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#826828 MCITP, All certification Paths

Posted by mip104 on 31 March 2009 - 02:47 PM

The whole MCITP Certifications Charts are as below:

MCITP: Enterprise Support Technician
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : 70-620
-Professional Series exam : 70-622

-Transition exam for an MCDST : 70-621

MCITP: Enterprise Project Management with Microsoft Office Project Server 2007
-Prerequisite MCTS certification 70-632 , 70-633
-Professional Series exams :70-634

MCITP: Enterprise Messaging Administrator
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : 70-236
-Professional Series exams : 70-237 , 70-238

MCITP: Database Administrator
-Prerequisite MCTS exam : 70-431
-Professional Series exams : 70-443 , 70-444

Transition path for an MCDBA
-Prerequisite MCTS exam for an MCDBA : 70-431
-Transition exam for an MCDBA : 70-447

MCITP: Database Developer
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : 70-431
-Professional Series exams : 70-441 , 70-442

MCITP: Consumer Support Technician
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : 70-620
-Professional Series exams : 70-623

MCITP: Business Intelligence Developer
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : 70-445
-Professional Series exams : 70-446

MCITP: Server Administrator
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : 70-640, 70-642
-Professional Series exams : 70-646

Transition path for an MCSA 2003
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : 70-648
-Professional Series exams : 70-646

Transition path for an MCSE 2003
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : 70-649
-Professional Series exams : 70-646

MCITP: Enterprise Administrator
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : (70-620 or 70-624 or 70-680), 70-640, 70-642, 70-643
-Professional Series exams : 70-647

Transition path for an MCSA 2003
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : (70-620 or 70-624 or 70-680),70-648, 70-643
-Professional Series exams : 70-647

Transition path for an MCSE 2003
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : (70-620 or 70-624 or 70-680),70-649
-Professional Series exams : 70-647

MCITP: Server Administrator & MCITP: Enterprise Administrator
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : (70-620 or 70-624 or 70-680), 70-640, 70-642, 70-643
-Professional Series exams : 70-646, 70-647

Transition path for an MCSA 2003
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : (70-620 or 70-624 or 70-680),70-648, 70-643
-Professional Series exams : 70-646, 70-647

Transition path for an MCSE 2003
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : (70-620 or 70-624 or 70-680),70-649
-Professional Series exams : 70-646, 70-647

MCITP: Database Administrator 2008
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : 70-432
-Professional Series exams : 70-450

Transition path for an MCITP: Database Administrator 2005
(you earn MCITP: Database Administrator 2008 and MCTS: SQL Server 2008, Implementation and Maintenance)

MCITP: Database Developer 2008
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : 70-433
-Professional Series exams : 70-451

Transition path for an MCITP: Database Developer on SQL Server 2005
(you earn MCITP: Database Developer 2008 and MCTS: SQL Server 2008, Database Development)

MCITP Business Intelligence Developer 2008
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : 70-448
-Professional Series exams : 70-452

Transition path for an MCITP: Business Intelligence Developer 2005
(you earn MCITP: Business Intelligence Developer 2008 and MCTS: SQL Server 2008, Business Intelligence Development and Maintenance)

MCITP: Enterprise Desktop Administrator 7
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : 70-680
-Professional Series exam : 70-686

MCITP: Enterprise Desktop Support Technician 7
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : 70-680
-Professional Series exam : 70-685

-Transition exam for MCDST XP or EDST Vista certifications to the EDST Windows 7 certification:70-682

MCITP: Enterprise Messaging Administrator 2010
-Prerequisite MCTS certification : 70-662
-Professional Series exam : 70-663

Update: As noted above, Exam 70-680 counts towards the MCITP: Enterprise Administrator certification. However, microsoft have experienced some system issues which have delayed the awarding of the MCITP: Enterprise Administrator certification based on the passing of 70-680. Those issues will be resolved before the end of September, 2009.
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#924136 Regarding VM auto copying system from one ESX server to another

Posted by xhen on 14 May 2014 - 04:27 AM

with Veeam Backup you can create a replica of the actual server and the run this replica in the server that you want. or just create backups of this machine to the place that you need.

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#923275 CCICERT and INE workbooks & Videos for share

Posted by ridaan on 23 May 2013 - 01:32 AM

People should come and help people beside selling materials here

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#918073 Internet Load Balancing in Cisco 1841 Router

Posted by SUBnet192 on 01 May 2012 - 10:39 AM

To do something like this you will need a 2nd router, 1 per ISP.

If you are in a switched environment, you will have to use GLBP to load balance the traffic (otherwise HSRP/VRRP would only provide failover).

If you are in a routed environment, having both ISPs advertise a default route will allow for failover. If both routes are of equal cost from the end user's perspective, you will also have load balancing.

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#917311 Hitted 200000 members

Posted by mip104 on 12 March 2012 - 01:56 PM

Dear ALL

This topic is created to proudly annouce that our great forum has over 200000 members, a special thanks to FS for his continous support for making this forum one of the best ever in the world

Special thanks for all Global moderators, Technical experts, Supportive veterans for their continuous support as well for this forum

Cheers for all
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#915978 Have someone update exam 70-662 ?

Posted by mip104 on 06 January 2012 - 04:42 AM

You will need to study hard, if you think you can just pass in one week! it is not true. you need to get more experience
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#915104 Does a Layer 2 Switch Require a Router to Forward Traffic Between VLAN

Posted by Ash90 on 01 December 2011 - 09:27 PM

LAN is a broadcast domain. It means any broadcast sent by any host in the single domain must be heard by all the host present in that single domain. Routers break broadcast domains. Also remember that a single broadcast domain means single Subnet (or Network, generaly speaking). A single Subnet means a single LAN.

Now a Router, by its name, routes data i.e. a Router provides intercommunication between different LANS or Broadcast domains or Subnets.

Therefore, YES, a Router is required to interconnect different broadcast domains.

VLAN is a feature in Layer 2 devices (SWITCHES) to create multiple LANS, Subnets or Broadcast domains. To interconnect the LANS, Subnets or Broadcast domain again we require a Layer-3 device - a Router.

Today Layer-3 Switches are available that not only provide the Layer-2 features such as VLANs but also provide Layer-3 Features such as Routing.

Depends on different needs in the enterprise one has to design the nework in such a way that certain trade-off must be made to restrain from spending too much cash and yet must not lose sight of QoS (i.e. the basic minimum needs of the enterprise datacommunications.)
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#914218 No upgrade path from MCSE to MCITP available

Posted by mip104 on 01 November 2011 - 01:09 PM

70-649, 70-680 and 70-647

70-649 and 70-646

For both
70-649, 70-680, 70-647 and 70-646
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#914207 CISSP - Knowledgebase

Posted by solar on 01 November 2011 - 07:22 AM

Finally good to be back on this site after such a long time. I just wanted to add few things here that might help people who are prepping for CISSP. I just took the test two days ago and wanted to share my experience before I forget. I don't know my results yet but I will definitely be glad to share whether I passed or failed once they become available. Here is what I used to study:
1. Shon Harris 5th Edition
2. Shon Harris online quiz questions (logical security stuff)
3. Boot Camp 5 days in Minnesota
Apart from that there really was not much time to do anything else. There is no solid way to prep as the questions are different so the best you can do is to understand the concepts.

Here are some of the topics that I encountered in the test:
1. BCP and DR was a big topic and lots of questions on it. Know each stage clearly and what gets done at each stage e.g Business Impact Analysis. Know tape vaulting, electronic tape vaulting, disk mirroring, disk shadowing topics in DR.
1a: Application Security was also very important. SDLC stages were questioned along with different attacks such as buffer overflows
1b: Operations security: Had to calculate SLE, ALE
2. Crypto had quite a few questions (know your symmetric and asymmetric algorithms with hashes)
3. Bell La Padula, Biba, Clark Wilson model and Brewer Nash (I had questions on all 4 of these) PGP had about 3 questions
4. Everyone who took the test in my group had this question: What is a fraggle attack?
5. There was a scenario question that showed a picture of the internet then box 1, box 2, box 4, local intranet connected along with box 3 connected on side to box 2. And questions where which box is your dmz, which one is firewall.
6. Chap, EAP, PPTP, IPSec scenario type question e.g. your network has chap, pptp and l2tp, what would you need for cert based auth etc. This had couple more question so it will test your understand of what services each of those protocols provide. Authentication, Authorization, Non Repudiation, Integrity etc.
7. Firesafety had couple questions as well along with interference (EMI, RFI, and one question whose answer was to basically run the wires through metal coduit)
8. Know polyinstantiation for sure as I saw more than 4 questions on this.
9. Know which protocol works at which layer of the OSI along with physical devices such as concentrators, bridges, routers, switches, repeaters (definitely saw couple questions on these)
10. Attack definition: known plaintext, chosen plaintext, chosen ciphertext etc. (shon harris 5th ed. pg 761) I had two questions on these
11. Employee termination steps (had two questions)

I will update the post if I remember anything else.
Good luck.
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#912482 block skype from GPO?HOW TO DO IT?

Posted by kamtec1 on 02 September 2011 - 08:56 AM

i want to blocj skype in my network i couldnt do it from kerio firewall because it is impossible can some one here explain me how one can do it through GPO ?PLEASE EXPLAIN THE PROCEDURE STEP BY STEP OR GIVE ME A LINK FOR IT

Hi .

Did some post and ways to block it (skype) :)
But still not complete one :( .. trying the best :)
1) Block IP Addresses to Skype Authentication Servers
Block & This won't affect people who have already signed up and saved their Skype credentials on their PC. It only works for new users that try to authenticate for the first time. So for new users that first install Skype, it should prevent them from authenticating and thus, they won't be able to get in. I have not verified this "tip" still works today. It updates all the time and have many new features .. . To test uninstall Skype (to similate a fresh install), block the IPs, then reinstall Skype.

2) Block Skype using ISA Server 2006
If you use ISA Server 2006 proxy server you can block various IM software clients including AOL Instant Messenger, MSN Instant Messenger, Yahoo Instant Messenger, and ICQ. It might also work with Skype as well, but Skype can be tricky to block. Although this awesome ISA Server 2006 article titled "Getting started with Microsoft ISA Server 2006, Part V: Configure HTTP Filter" seems to indicate using ISA Server 2006 to block Skype can be difficult. But it's a great resource for blocking other IM clients and even .torrent files.

3) Block Skype using Group Policy (corporate environments)
Go to Computer Configuration / Windows Settings / Security Settings - Software Restriction Policies - Additional rules. Then create rules for the hash of the specified .exe to block no matter where it launches from. Problem with this is that Skype updates regularly, so you'd have to keep on it. So alternatively, block a specified directory, i.e. \program files\skype and disallow anything from launching from within that directory.

And the way that need to pay ...
Alternative methods for blocking Skype

1)NetSpective from Verso Technologies - Can be configured to block over 20 P2P and Instant Messaging programs, including Skype. NetSpective is available in enterprise and carrier versions. Verso has supplied China Telecom with their carrier class of NetSpective.
2)Packeteer's PacketShaper - detects Skype and other P2P traffic and allows the administrator to apply Quality of Service regulations or block it completely.
3)SonicWall's Unified Threat Management appliances - SonicWall has a PDF presentation on how to block Skype with their hardware, or you can read the HTML version in the Google cache or on the web site .
4)Fortigate from Fortinet - capable of blocking Skype and other P2P applications.
5)Check Point's InterSpect - Using InterSpect with Check Point's SmartDefense system can identify and block P2P applications including Skype.
6)Cisco equipment running IOS version 12.4 (4) T - This is the "free" option, providing that your network already uses a Cisco product with this IOS version. See Cisco Tips & Tricks for the instructions on there site and fenitooo skype:))) .
7) Blocking Skype Using Squid system
8) Blocking Skype Using OpenBSD software.

P.S. Its not he end of the war with skype ....
The last thing is to write the hash rule and he can block it very well :)

Good luck ,
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#910235 block skype from GPO?HOW TO DO IT?

Posted by kamtec1 on 02 July 2011 - 07:40 AM

i want to blocj skype in my network i couldnt do it from kerio firewall because it is impossible can some one here explain me how one can do it through GPO ?PLEASE EXPLAIN THE PROCEDURE STEP BY STEP OR GIVE ME A LINK FOR IT

Hi shaig85 .

Do you have windows 2008 and windows 7 in your company :)

If yes , its way better to block skype.

If no , you can do this stage :

* Go to the http traffic policies and block:
LogIn servers:,,,

As i mean, block all skype IPs and DN .


Posted 24 May 2011 - 09:37 PM

shaig85, on 13 May 2011 - 01:18 PM, said:
no to restrict throug GPO THROUGH CASH


That is why you must use a Hash rule ,no CASH , in the user configuration. Because hash rules recognized the file by a unique algorithm of that executable, and not by its filename or path.

One thing about Software Restriction using a hash rule:
Make sure users cannot install other versions of Skype them selfs, by using installation packages.

(By the way, to your concern. As long as these users are not! a member of the local group 'Administrators' or 'Power Users', then they can not make changes at all in the Program files and the Windows folders and most of the keys in the registry).

Good luck .
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