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#1 DarkFiber

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Posted 07 April 2009 - 06:29 AM


IPv6


Why using Ipv6?

IPv4 has only about 4.3 billion addresses available—in theory, and we know that we don’t even get to use all of those. There really are only about 250 million addresses that can be assigned to devices.
There are a lot of reports that give us all kinds of numbers, but all you really need to think about to convince yourself that I’m not just being an alarmist is the fact that there are about 6.5 billion people in the world today, and it’s estimated that just over 10 percent of that population is connected to the Internet, which means will run out of them, and it’s going to happen within a few years.

That statistic is basically screaming at us the ugly truth that based on IPv4’s capacity, every person can’t even have a computer—let alone all the other devices we use with them. I have more than one computer, and it’s pretty likely you do too. And I’m not even including in the mix phones, laptops, game consoles, fax machines, routers, switches, and a mother lode of other devices we use every day! So I think I’ve made it pretty clear that we’ve got to do something before we run out of addresses and lose the ability to connect with each other as we know it. And that “something” just happens to be implementing IPv6.

The problem of IPv4 address exhaustion was recognized in the early 1990s, when various experts made projections showing that if the increasing rate of the allotment of IPv4 addresses continued, the entire address space could be depleted in just a few short years. A newversion of IPknown in the development stage as IP Next Generation or IPng, and which is now IPv6was the proposed solution. But it was
recognized that developing the new standards would take time, and that a short-term solution to IPv4 address depletion also was needed.

That short-term solution was Network Address Translation (NAT), which allows multiple hosts to share one or a few public IP addresses. Behind the NAT device, private IP addresses are used.
NAT has been so successful in slowing IPv4 address depletion, and has become such a standard part of most networks, that to this day many still question the need for a new version of IP. But the widespread use of NAT has changed the open, transparent, peer-to-peer Internet into something much more like a huge collection of client-server networks. Users are seen as being connected around the "edge" of the Internet, and services flow out to them.

Although most of the IPv6 standards were completed years ago, it is only recently that serious interest in migrating from IPv4 to IPv6 has been shown.
There are two fundamental drivers behind the growing recognition of the need for IPv6.
The first is widespread vision of new applications using core concepts such as mobile IP, service quality guarantees, end-to-end security, grid computing, and peer-to-peer networking. NAT stifles innovation in these areas, and the only way to get NAT out of the way is to make public IP addresses abundant and readily available.

The second fundamental driver for IPv6 is the rapid modernization of heavily populated countries such as India and China. A compelling statistic is that the number of remaining unallocated IPv4 addresses is almost the same as the population of China: about 1.3 billion. With its aggressive expansion of its Internet infrastructure, China alone in the near future will represent an unsupportable pressure on an already strained IPv4 address pool. In India, with a population size close to China's, 4- and 5-layer NAT hierarchies exist just to support the present demands for IP addresses.

IPv6 replaces the 32-bit IPv4 address with a 128-bit address, making 340 trillion trillion trillion IP addresses available.
That number will meet the demands for public IP addresses, and answer the needs of the two fundamental drivers discussed here, well into the foreseeable future.


Benefits using Ipv6?
IPv6 includes the following enhancements over IPv4:
Expanded address space—IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses instead of the 32-bit addresses in IPv4.

Globally unique IP addresses—The additional address spaces allow each node to have a
unique address and eliminate the need for NAT.

Fixed header length—The IPv6 header length is fixed 40 bytes, allowing vendors to improve
switching efficiency, routers do not need to recalculate a header checksum for every packet


Address autoconfiguration—This capability provides for dynamic assignment of IPv6
addresses. IPv6 hosts can automatically configure themselves, with or without a Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server (Plug & play).

Support for labeling traffic flows—Instead of the type-of-service field in IPv4, IPv6 enables the labeling of packets belonging to a particular traffic class for which the sender requests special handling.
This support aids specialized traffic, such as real-time video& traffic flow. There are several advantages to differentiating flows, from providing a finer-grained differentiated class-of-service treatment to ensuring, when balancing traffic loads across multiple paths, that packets belonging to the same flow are always forwarded over the same path to prevent possible reordering of packets. As of this writing, however, the complete specification of how to use the flow label field is still being debated, and routers currently ignore the field.

Mobility and security: Mobility and security help ensure compliance with mobile IP and IPsec standards functionality. Mobility enables people to move around in networks with mobile network devices—with many having wireless connectivity. The standard enables mobile devices to move without breaks in established network connections. Because IPv4 does not automatically provide this kind of mobility,You must add it with additional configurations. In IPv6, mobility is built in (any cast), which means that any IPv6 node can use it when necessary.
IPsec is mandatory in IPv6. IPsec is enabled on every IPv6 node and is available for use. The availability of IPsec on all nodes makes the IPv6 Internet more secure. IPsec also requires keys for each party, which implies a global key deployment and distribution.

Maximum transmission unit (MTU) path discovery—IPv6 eliminates the need to
fragment packets by implementing MTU path discovery before sending packets to a
destination, routers doesn’t need to do fragmentation any more.

Site multihoming—IPv6 allows multihoming of hosts and networks to have multiple IPv6
prefixes, which facilitates connection to multiple ISPs.



Ipv6 Address Representation

Rather than using dotted-decimal format, IPv6 addresses are written as hexadecimal numbers with colons between each set of four hexadecimal digits (which is 16 bits).
So ipv6 is a 16bit-eight coloned-hex ,The format is x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x, where x is a 16-bit hexadecimal field.
A sample address is as follows:

2035:0001:2BC5:0000:0000:087C:0000:000A

Fortunately, you can shorten the written form of IPv6 addresses. Leading 0s within each
set of four hexadecimal digits can be omitted, and a pair of colons ( :: ) can be used, once
within an address, to represent any number of successive 0s but once in the address

2035:1:2BC5:: 87C:0:A

http://[ 2035:1:2BC5::87C:0:A ]/default.html


Consequently, some countries, such as Japan, are aggressively adopting IPv6. Others, such as those in the European Union are moving toward IPv6, and China is considering building pure
IPv6 networks from the ground up.
As of October 1, 2003, even in North America, where Internet addresses are abundant, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) mandated that all new equipment purchased be IPv6-capable. In
fact, the department intends to switch entirely to IPv6 equipment by 2008.


Have attached a word file, with more details about the IPv6 Addressing types & NDP, with routing protocols config.
use it in your studying.


Hope it might help.

Attached Files


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#2 moekad

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Posted 08 April 2009 - 07:17 AM

hey well i am so week in ipv6 and i think from now till 3 years no more ipv4 lol
i wonder i am mixed in that
here's an ipv6:
fe80::210:a4ff:fea0:bc97
how did you create the fe80? why you type fe beside the 80 and so on ?
if there any link can help me with
thanks for your help.
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#3 moekad

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Posted 08 April 2009 - 07:57 AM

i wonder how to subnet in ipv6
usually in ipv4 like
192.168.1.0/24
1st 24 bits same so ip range with 192.168.1.1 till 192.168.1.254
ipv4 have 8 bits 128- 64- 32- 16- 8- 4- 2- 1-
my quesiton : in ipv6 it have 18 bits
how will the range will be ? i mean i know how to subnet on the way of 128 ===> till 1
in ipv6 in 16 bits is there same as ipv4 of : 128- 64- 32- 16- 8- 4- 2- 1- and if it's then we still have 8 more bits what's the continue of ?
Thanks.
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#4 DarkFiber

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Posted 08 April 2009 - 07:50 PM

Dear All,
The Link-Local address FE8 is generated by default for Ipv6 auto plug& play
The IPv6 is using Hexa Decimal, 16 bits per Portion
The subnet portion for the IPv6 is from 48Bits till the 64 Bits in the network Portion for Global unique address, Kindly have a look on the document attached.
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#5 moekad

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Posted 09 April 2009 - 02:18 AM

Dear All,
The Link-Local address FE8 is generated by default for Ipv6 auto plug& play
The IPv6 is using Hexa Decimal, 16 bits per Portion
The subnet portion for the IPv6 is from 48Bits till the 64 Bits in the network Portion for Global unique address, Kindly have a look on the document attached.


okay i read the document so interesting
i need to ask in ipv4 there is private like 192.168.0.0/16...
in ipv6 is there any private address? if yes what are they?
or the same as ipv4 (IPv4 compatible ipv6 Address) ?
one more thing in ipv6 let's say /64 mean 1st 64 bits are stable and the other 64 are set to 0 to identify the network porition ?
and set to 1 to identify broadcast? but i read that in ipv6 there is no more broadcast there is multicast?
or there is no subneting in ipv6?
Thanks ipv6 is interesting.
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#6 DarkFiber

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Posted 09 April 2009 - 07:06 AM

okay i read the document so interesting
i need to ask in ipv4 there is private like 192.168.0.0/16...
in ipv6 is there any private address? if yes what are they?
or the same as ipv4 (IPv4 compatible ipv6 Address) ?
one more thing in ipv6 let's say /64 mean 1st 64 bits are stable and the other 64 are set to 0 to identify the network porition ?
and set to 1 to identify broadcast? but i read that in ipv6 there is no more broadcast there is multicast?
or there is no subneting in ipv6?
Thanks ipv6 is interesting.


Yes the private addresses are the link-local starting with FE80/10
Yes the 1st 64 bits are the network portion for the Global Ipv6 addresses, abd teh host portion is even drivyed from the MAC address eui-64 , or are assigned staticly
There is no Brodcast in ipv6 , i mean you cant have somthing liek 192.168.1.255......you have a multicast for the whole hosts & whole routers whatever network ID they are in
which are the ff02::1 & ff02::2
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#7 MarkinManchester

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Posted 09 April 2009 - 07:53 AM

Hi

A useful document for all levels as IPv6 is almost a core subject at all levels.

Mark
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#8 moekad

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Posted 09 April 2009 - 09:56 AM

okay i read the document so interesting
i need to ask in ipv4 there is private like 192.168.0.0/16...
in ipv6 is there any private address? if yes what are they?
or the same as ipv4 (IPv4 compatible ipv6 Address) ?
one more thing in ipv6 let's say /64 mean 1st 64 bits are stable and the other 64 are set to 0 to identify the network porition ?
and set to 1 to identify broadcast? but i read that in ipv6 there is no more broadcast there is multicast?
or there is no subneting in ipv6?
Thanks ipv6 is interesting.

hey again
you know it tool much time reading the document
just few question link local for private
FE80::/64 by default /64 here are set by default for link local ? and for site fec0::/64 also by default?
and about global unicast is for public? and about Autoconfigure what is this option benefit?
and about router Parent route and child route ... router still check in the same way like check if subnet mask of destination /64 check in child route
for the longest match ... ?
i just need answer for these question and i think i'll full understand them and thanks alot for this document it's interesting.
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#9 DarkFiber

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Posted 09 April 2009 - 07:11 PM

hey again
you know it tool much time reading the document
just few question link local for private
FE80::/64 by default /64 here are set by default for link local ? and for site fec0::/64 also by default?
and about global unicast is for public? and about Autoconfigure what is this option benefit?
and about router Parent route and child route ... router still check in the same way like check if subnet mask of destination /64 check in child route
for the longest match ... ?
i just need answer for these question and i think i'll full understand them and thanks alot for this document it's interesting.


Sure : )


FE80::/64 by default /64 here are set by default for link local ? YES , its by default any device do that PC, router even a Mobile phone.
and for site fec0::/64 also by default? yes , but its not used now.
about global unicast is for public? it must be assigned to you via SP, and till now the opened ranges are 2002 & 2003::/64
about Autoconfigure what is this option benefit? The benefit is the plug & play , if several devices are sharing the same network, or LAN, they can be connected to each other automatically, no need for DHCP inside the LAN, also if to routers are connected to each other, they can be reachable via their Link-local IPs

And yes the follow the longest match for the subnet


Hope that help you in studying IPv6
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#10 moekad

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Posted 09 April 2009 - 10:28 PM

Sure : )


FE80::/64 by default /64 here are set by default for link local ? YES , its by default any device do that PC, router even a Mobile phone.
and for site fec0::/64 also by default? yes , but its not used now.
about global unicast is for public? it must be assigned to you via SP, and till now the opened ranges are 2002 & 2003::/64
about Autoconfigure what is this option benefit? The benefit is the plug & play , if several devices are sharing the same network, or LAN, they can be connected to each other automatically, no need for DHCP inside the LAN, also if to routers are connected to each other, they can be reachable via their Link-local IPs

And yes the follow the longest match for the subnet


Hope that help you in studying IPv6


hey thanks
think i am starting to understand them :)
when i use fe80::40/64 in my lan between 2 ubuntu when i ping6 won't work
if i use anything like fec0::40/64 ping6 work why ?
although link-local address use for private lan and non routable
and you said 2002 & 2003::/64 are used for global unicast nowadays, i see alot of 2001:: for?
thanks for your help and answering me .
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#11 moekad

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Posted 09 April 2009 - 11:02 PM

hey thanks
think i am starting to understand them :)
when i use fe80::40/64 in my lan between 2 ubuntu when i ping6 won't work
if i use anything like fec0::40/64 ping6 work why ?
although link-local address use for private lan and non routable
and you said 2002 & 2003::/64 are used for global unicast nowadays, i see alot of 2001:: for?
thanks for your help and answering me .


hey sorry the edit option won't work
the ubuntu ping work i specify the interface just about this point :
you said 2002 & 2003::/64 are used for global unicast nowadays, i see alot of 2001:: for?
thanks for your help and answering me again...
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#12 DarkFiber

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Posted 09 April 2009 - 11:23 PM

hey sorry the edit option won't work
the ubuntu ping work i specify the interface just about this point :
you said 2002 & 2003::/64 are used for global unicast nowadays, i see allot of 2001:: for?
thanks for your help and answering me again...


If you see 2001:: , this wont be a problem, its routable its also a global address, you have a very big range to use as public addresses , but what i know that the 2002 , 2003 & now 2001 are being assigned for use.
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#13 moekad

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Posted 10 April 2009 - 12:11 AM

If you see 2001:: , this wont be a problem, its routable its also a global address, you have a very big range to use as public addresses , but what i know that the 2002 , 2003 & now 2001 are being assigned for use.


okie
i set up the router with ipv6
everything work good
i show ipv6 route
IPv6 Routing Table - 5 entries
Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP
U - Per-user Static route, M - MIPv6
I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2, IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary
O - OSPF intra, OI - OSPF inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2
ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external
R 2000::/64 [120/1]
via FE80::206:2AFF:FE66:DB01, Serial0/0/0
R 2001::40/127 [120/2]
via FE80::206:2AFF:FE66:DB01, Serial0/0/0
C 2004::/64 [0/0]
via ::, Serial0/0/0
L 2004::41/128 [0/0]
via ::, Serial0/0/0
L FF00::/8 [0/0]
via ::, Null0
1st now i can pint 2001::40 it's ok but 2000::/64 must be 2000::80
2nd so i can't ping it why in the routing table it's installed 2000::/64 it must be 2000::80
moreover the FE80::206:2AFF:FE66:DB01 is the next hop address but i config there the 2004::40 automatic the FE80::206:2AFF:FE66:DB01
i think this make the problem ? although i try no ipv6 address FE80::206:2AFF:FE66:DB01/64 and link-local didn't remove...
and last thing when i configure the interface with like : 2000::80/64 it's installed in routing table as 2000::80/127 ? why
thanks for your help start to linke ipv6 :)
thanks for your help again
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#14 moekad

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Posted 10 April 2009 - 06:36 AM

okie
i set up the router with ipv6
everything work good
i show ipv6 route
IPv6 Routing Table - 5 entries
Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP
U - Per-user Static route, M - MIPv6
I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2, IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary
O - OSPF intra, OI - OSPF inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2
ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external
R 2000::/64 [120/1]
via FE80::206:2AFF:FE66:DB01, Serial0/0/0
R 2001::40/127 [120/2]
via FE80::206:2AFF:FE66:DB01, Serial0/0/0
C 2004::/64 [0/0]
via ::, Serial0/0/0
L 2004::41/128 [0/0]
via ::, Serial0/0/0
L FF00::/8 [0/0]
via ::, Null0
1st now i can pint 2001::40 it's ok but 2000::/64 must be 2000::80
2nd so i can't ping it why in the routing table it's installed 2000::/64 it must be 2000::80
moreover the FE80::206:2AFF:FE66:DB01 is the next hop address but i config there the 2004::40 automatic the FE80::206:2AFF:FE66:DB01
i think this make the problem ? although i try no ipv6 address FE80::206:2AFF:FE66:DB01/64 and link-local didn't remove...
and last thing when i configure the interface with like : 2000::80/64 it's installed in routing table as 2000::80/127 ? why
thanks for your help start to linke ipv6 :)
thanks for your help again


ah wait i think i was having a long time it's write
:D
same as ipv4 it give the classful ip but i only want to know how to remove the link ip from the interface of serial0/0/0 "FE80::206:2AFF:FE66:DB01" which i didn't add when i create ipv6 it displayed
i just enter Router(config)# ipv6 enable
Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing
Router(config# interface serial0/0/0
Router(config-if)# ipv6 address 2004::41/126
then Router(config-if)# ipv6 rip enable enable
+ i want to know i specify subnetmask /126 why in show ipv6 route it's displayer 2004::41/128 ?
any issue... anything i did wrong?
thanks alot take care
thanks for help :)

Edited by moekad, 10 April 2009 - 06:39 AM.

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#15 DarkFiber

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Posted 12 April 2009 - 06:53 PM

ah wait i think i was having a long time it's write
:D
same as ipv4 it give the classful ip but i only want to know how to remove the link ip from the interface of serial0/0/0 "FE80::206:2AFF:FE66:DB01" which i didn't add when i create ipv6 it displayed
i just enter Router(config)# ipv6 enable
Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing
Router(config# interface serial0/0/0
Router(config-if)# ipv6 address 2004::41/126
then Router(config-if)# ipv6 rip enable enable
+ i want to know i specify subnetmask /126 why in show ipv6 route it's displayer 2004::41/128 ?
any issue... anything i did wrong?
thanks alot take care
thanks for help :)


I Think any ipv6 /64 or more than 64 , will provide you with an IPv6 address on the interface , which will be /128 :)
Try it , the subnet is always /64 , and any host will be /128
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#16 rainbow9810

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Posted 12 April 2009 - 08:57 PM

Good document Dark Fiber......Thanks for this... :)
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#17 moekad

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Posted 14 April 2009 - 11:42 AM

I Think any ipv6 /64 or more than 64 , will provide you with an IPv6 address on the interface , which will be /128 :)
Try it , the subnet is always /64 , and any host will be /128


ok if the host i check in show ipv6 route /128
how i can know to which subnet is? maybe i am doing 4 networks with 2009::
how i can know each one which subnet is? if in show ipv6 route show the host /128
thanks
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#18 DarkFiber

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Posted 14 April 2009 - 11:19 PM

ok if the host i check in show ipv6 route /128
how i can know to which subnet is? maybe i am doing 4 networks with 2009::
how i can know each one which subnet is? if in show ipv6 route show the host /128
thanks



Remember that always the network is /64 including subnet ID from 48---->64 bits. :)
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#19 DarkFiber

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Posted 26 April 2009 - 10:21 PM



WOW , My Document have been downloaded 111 Times here.....
Hope it helped you all.
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#20 DarkFiber

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Posted 30 April 2009 - 08:26 AM


Hello Guys , any questions regarding this Topic : )
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#21 lollyjustin22

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Posted 09 May 2009 - 02:47 PM

Hi,

Say I am having an IPV6 Block 2001:3200::/32. Now the question is.

I need to distribute this block into 60 POPs where Lease line of my customers are terminating, can you tell me how to distribute this block and assign IPs to my customers.


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#22 DarkFiber

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Posted 09 May 2009 - 10:22 PM

QUOTE (lollyjustin22 @ May 9 2009, 07:47 AM) <{POST_SNAPBACK}>
Hi,

Say I am having an IPV6 Block 2001:3200::/32. Now the question is.

I need to distribute this block into 60 POPs where Lease line of my customers are terminating, can you tell me how to distribute this block and assign IPs to my customers.


2001:3200:0:1::/64 is the 1st subnet
2001:3200:0:2::/64 is the 2nd subnet...ect
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#23 lollyjustin22

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Posted 11 May 2009 - 02:58 PM

Thanks for your reply. So you mean to say that if I want to assign IPs to my LL CUstomers I shall be distributing these subnet to my customer:

2001:3200:0:1::/64 is the 1st subnet - to one customer
2001:3200:0:2::/64 is the 2nd subnet... - to second customer and so on.

Can you plz focus in case if the customer requiremnet is VPN and INternet both.

PLz do let me know, I shall be thankfull to you.
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#24 DarkFiber

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Posted 12 May 2009 - 06:30 PM

QUOTE (lollyjustin22 @ May 11 2009, 07:58 AM) <{POST_SNAPBACK}>
Thanks for your reply. So you mean to say that if I want to assign IPs to my LL CUstomers I shall be distributing these subnet to my customer:

2001:3200:0:1::/64 is the 1st subnet - to one customer
2001:3200:0:2::/64 is the 2nd subnet... - to second customer and so on.

Can you plz focus in case if the customer requiremnet is VPN and INternet both.

PLz do let me know, I shall be thankfull to you.
to implement so i can give you more advise

Nothing will change , except that you will need to do a NATingon the edge between IPv6 to IPv4 when going to the internet.
TO be honest , i need more info about teh solution you want
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#25 lollyjustin22

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Posted 15 May 2009 - 10:17 PM

OK...Let me try to brief you some more

I am having an IPV6 Block 2001:3200::/32. Now the question is:

1. Say I am having 300 locations across the country for integrating customer links who have taken IPVPN & IBW services.

2. How should I distribute this IPV6 block to diferent regions using OSPF ( i.e summarize ), and how to give IP to customers for providing these services.

Like I am having a IPV4 block 172.30.5.0/24 & 172.30.6.0/24, configured for one region, now what i a doing is giving 172.30.5.2/30 for his wan and 172.30.6.8/29 for LAN, I want IPV6 to be distributed in the same way.
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#26 DarkFiber

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Posted 15 May 2009 - 10:20 PM

QUOTE (lollyjustin22 @ May 15 2009, 03:17 PM) <{POST_SNAPBACK}>
OK...Let me try to brief you some more

I am having an IPV6 Block 2001:3200::/32. Now the question is:

1. Say I am having 300 locations across the country for integrating customer links who have taken IPVPN & IBW services.

2. How should I distribute this IPV6 block to diferent regions using OSPF ( i.e summarize ), and how to give IP to customers for providing these services.

Like I am having a IPV4 block 172.30.5.0/24 & 172.30.6.0/24, configured for one region, now what i a doing is giving 172.30.5.2/30 for his wan and 172.30.6.8/29 for LAN, I want IPV6 to be distributed in the same way.


Do your design on IPv4 , then convert it to IPv6 wink.gif
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#27 lollyjustin22

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Posted 18 May 2009 - 01:59 PM

Problem is that I don't know how to subnet IPV6 i.e how to subnet the block assigned to me to different regions and to customers. Plz help me......!
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#28 DarkFiber

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Posted 18 May 2009 - 06:55 PM

QUOTE (lollyjustin22 @ May 18 2009, 06:59 AM) <{POST_SNAPBACK}>
Problem is that I don't know how to subnet IPV6 i.e how to subnet the block assigned to me to different regions and to customers. Plz help me......!


Man you don't have to do subnetting, IPV6 is made so you don't have to do it.

each site will have a different /64 Net ID , thats all.

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#29 lollyjustin22

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Posted 18 May 2009 - 07:21 PM

Thanks Darkfiber.smile.gif
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#30 dgharami

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Posted 29 May 2009 - 07:44 PM

DarkFiber's IPv6 file in PDF Format

Attached File  IPv6_ccna.pdf   1.15MB   152 downloads

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